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Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov " Nobel Prize in physics 2010 "

 Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov  won  nobel prize in physics 2010
for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene
Andre Geim
 " Many people chose a subject for their PhD and then continue the same subject until they retire. I despise this approach. I have changed my subject five times before I got my first tenured position and that helped me to learn different subjects " Andre Geim
Andre Geim was born to Konstantin Alekseyevich Geim and Nina Nikolayevna Bayer on October 1, 1958. Both his parents were Russian German engineers. Geim has stated, "My mother's grandmother was Jewish. I suffered from anti-Semitism in Russia because my name sounds Jewish Geim has one brother, Vladislav. In 1965, the family moved to Nalchik,] where he studied at an English-language high school After graduation, he applied to the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute He took the entrance exams twice, but was not accepted He then applied to the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), where he was accepted. He said the students had to work extremely hard: "The pressure to work and to study was so intense that it was not a rare thing for people to break and leave, and some of them ended up with everything from schizophrenia to depression to suicide." He received an MSc in 1982, and in 1987 obtained a PhD in metal physics from the Institute of Solid State Physics (ISSP) at the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) in Chernogolovka. He said that at the time he would not have chosen to study solid-state physics, preferring particle physics or astrophysics, but is now happy with his choice 
After earning his PhD, Geim worked as a research scientist at the Institute for Microelectronics Technology (IMT) at RAS, and from 1990 as a post-doctoral fellow at the universities of Nottingham (twice), Bath, and Copenhagen. He said that while at Nottingham he could spend his time on research rather than have to deal with politics, and determined to leave Russia

He obtained his first tenured position in 1994, when he was appointed associate professor at Radboud University Nijmegen, where he did work on mesoscopic superconductivity. He later gained Dutch citizenship. One of his doctoral students at Nijmegen was Konstantin Novoselov, who went on to become his main research partner.
In 2001 he became a professor of physics at the University of Manchester, and was appointed director of the Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology in 2002, and Langworthy Professor in 2007 Geim's wife and his long-standing co-author, Irina Grigorieva, also moved to Manchester as a lecturer. Later they were joined by Novoselov Since 2007 he has been an EPSRC Senior Research Fellow
In 2010 Radboud University Nijmegen appointed him professor of innovative materials and nanoscience
 Konstantin Novoselov&Irina Grigorieva & ndre Geim
 Geim's achievements include the discovery of a simple method for isolating single atomic layers of graphite, known as graphene, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Manchester and IMT. The team published their findings in October 2004 in Science.
Geim was involved in the development of a biomimetic adhesive which became known as gecko tape—so called because of the adhesiveness of gecko feet—research of which is still in the early stages. It is hoped that the development will eventually allow humans to scale ceilings, like Spider-Man
Geim's research into diamagnetic levitation resulted in a famous experiment in 1997 in which a frog was levitated. He has also done research on mesoscopic physics and superconductivity.
He named his favourite hamster, H.A.M.S. ter Tisha, co-author in a 2001 research paper..

 Graphene is an allotrope of carbon, whose structure is one-atom-thick planar sheets of sp-bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice The term graphene was coined as a combination of graphite and the suffix -ene by Hanns-Peter Boehm who described single-layer carbon foils in 1962. Graphene is most easily visualized as an atomic-scale chicken wire made of carbon atoms and their bonds. The crystalline or "flake" form of graphite consists of many graphene sheets stacked together.
The carbon-carbon bond length in graphene is about 0.142 nanometers. Graphene sheets stack to form graphite with an interplanar spacing of 0.335 nm, which means that a stack of 3 million sheets would be only one millimeter thick. Graphene is the basic structural element of some carbon allotropes including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. It can also be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the limiting case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
The theory behind the substance graphene was first explored by theoretical physicist Philip Wallace in 1947 as kind of a starting point when he was doing research trying to understand the electronic properties of more complex, 3D graphite. although the name graphene wasn't actually coined until 40 years later, where it was used to describe single sheets of graphite. In other words, it's the name given to a flat monolayer of carbon atoms that are tightly packed into a 2D honeycomb lattice; like a molecular chicken-wire that is one atom thick. It's essentially the basic building block for graphitic materials of all other dimensionalities; it's a stepping stone to building bigger things. Graphene in itself however wasn't discovered until 2004 in its full observable and testable form.
Since then, in the past 6 years, scientists have discovered that the substance retains some amazing properties. Some say that it will be heralded as one of the materials that will literally change our lives in the 21st century. Not only is graphene the thinnest possible material that is feasible, but it's also about 200 times stronger than steel and conducts electricity better than any material known to man—at room temperature. Researchers at Columbia University's Fu Foundation School of Engineering who proved that graphene is the strongest material ever measured said that "It would take an elephant, balanced on a pencil, to break through a sheet of graphene the thickness of Saran Wrap."
 2010 Nobel Prize for "groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"(shared with Novoselov)
2010 Royal Society Hughes Medal for "discovery of graphene and elucidation of its remarkable properties"
2010 NAS John J Cart Award for "the realisation and investigation of graphene, the two-dimensional form of carbon"
2009 Korber Prize for "developing the first two-dimensional crystals made of carbon atoms"
2008 Europhysics Prize for "discovering and isolating a single free-standing atomic layer of carbon (graphene) and elucidating its remarkable electronic properties" (shared with Novoselov)
2007 Mott Prize for "the discovery of a new class of materials 2D atomic crystals particularly graphene"

Andre Geim's speech at the Nobel Banquet, 10 December 2010

Your Majesties, Your Royal Highnesses, Ladies and Gentlemen, Colleagues and Friends
A lot of praise has already been given to our work and the exciting new material graphene. We will certainly hear even more tribute as graphene’s impact on our lives becomes more obvious. So, let me refrain from further praise because today is also an occasion to celebrate something else.
The last decades were relatively peaceful and quiet for the planet. But with no obvious danger from outside, we are facing another danger, from inside. Instant information about everything and everyone often allows an individual opinion to compete with consensus and paranoia with evidence. It is a time when one blunt honest statement can finish a life-long political career, and one opinionated journalist can bully a government or a royal family. Science is not immune from such pressures. For example, how many Nobel prize-winning experiments – you think – would have been stopped, if ethics or health-and-safety regulations at that time were as zealous as they are today? I can think of more than a few.
Human progress has always been driven by a sense of adventure and unconventional thinking. But amidst calls for "bread and circuses", these virtues are often forgotten for the sake of cautiousness and political correctness that now rule the world. And we sink deeper and deeper from democracy into a state of mediocrity and even idiocracy. If you need an example, look no further than at research funding by the European Commission.
Against this backdrop I salute the Royal Swedish Academy for keeping the candle of merit alive. The great esteem in which the Nobel prizes are universally held is due to the fact that for several generations they have been given purely on scientific merit and not through lobbying and politicking. I do hope that it will stay this way, and the prizes will never be given according to the number of votes in live TV contests!
Let me also thank the Royal family for lending their unwavering support to the great Nobel tradition. It is a great feeling to partake in the lavish celebrations that put scientific achievement on such a high pedestal. The generosity of the Nobel foundation and all the Swedish people contribute to making the prize so very special.
From the very bottom of my heart, thank you all

Konstantin Novoselov

P Konstantin Novoselov  was born in Russia in August 1974. He also has British citizenship.
He completed his PhD at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory at The University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands in 2004 and joined The University of Manchester as a Leverhulme Research Fellow in 2005.
He also holds the position of Royal Society Research Fellow at The University. In 2008 he was named as one of The University of Manchester’s Researchers of the Year.

Prof Novoselov has published over 90 peer-refereed research papers, mainly as the principal or corresponding author, including several in Nature and Science.
His pioneering work with Prof Andre Geim led to the discovery of two-dimensional crystals made of carbon atoms, and most notably graphene.
In 2008 Prof Novoselov was selected from more than 300 nominees under the age of 35 by a panel of expert judges and the editorial staff of Technology Review following his discovery of graphene with Professor Andre Geim in 2004.
In September of the same year, Prof Novoselov and Prof Geim were awarded the prestigious Europhysics Prize for discovering graphene - and also their subsequent work to reveal its remarkable electronic properties.
Since the discovery of graphene in 2004, Prof Geim and Prof Novoselov have published numerous research papers in prestigious journals such as Science and Nature, which have demonstrated the exquisite new physics for the material and its potential in novel applications such as transistors just one atom thick and sensors that can detect just a single molecule of a toxic gas.
In April 2008, Prof Geim, Prof Novoselov and Dr Leonid Ponomarenko published a paper in the leading journal Science, which reported that they had used graphene to create the world's smallest transistor, one atom thick and ten atoms wide.

Novoselov’s original joint paper on grapheme in Science in 2004 has also been acknowledged as “one of the most cited recent papers in the field of Physics” according to the ISI citation index.


 •  2008 Europhysics Prize, "for discovering and isolating a single free-standing atomic layer of carbon (graphene) and elucidating its remarkable electronic properties

•  2010 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Andre Geim, "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene Novoselov was the youngest Nobel laureate in physics since Brian Josephson in 1973, and in any field since Rigoberta Menchú (Peace) in 1992.