meta content='nobel,nobel prize,a nobel prize winner,nobelprize ,nobel prize winners ,nobel prize 2010,nobel prize winners 2010,alfrid nobel ' name='keywords'/> Nobel Prize: Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009 for Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (1)

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009 for Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (1)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009 was awarded jointly to Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz, Ada E. Yonath for their "studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"
 “I am not a cricket star or a politician,” Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan biography
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan known to most as "Venki," was Born in 1952 in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, Ramakrishnan did his PhD in Physics in 1976 from Ohio University, US. He is a senior scientist and group leader at Structural Studies Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, Britain.
What Venkatraman Ramakrishnan said about his study in a girls’School l at Baroda ? 
video
" When my parents moved there that was  the only English medium school in  Baroda. And since they didn’t know Gujarati, they were not comfortable with
the idea of sending me to a Gujarati school because then they wouldn’t be
able to help me. They wouldn’t be able to understand even my teachers, for
instance. So they wanted me to go to an English medium school. So they sent me there because at that time it was for both girls and boys. Then what happened is
that when I was in the 2nd or 3rd grade, another school called Roseway High School, which was a Jesuit school, opened up an English medium section.
So my school decided to make their  school strictly for girls because it was run by nuns. But they let all the old boys stay in the school. As I went through school, there were fewer and fewer boys. In the end it became  mostly girls
“ There is no real place for ritual and ceremony in science.” Venki Ramakrishnan
Dr Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, started out as a theoretical physicist. After graduate school, he designed his own 2-year transition from physics to biology. Then, as a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of Dr Peter Moore at Yale University, he worked on a neutron-scattering map of the small ribosomal subunit of E. coli. He has been studying ribosome structure ever since.
Ramakrishnan is married to Vera Rosenberry, an author and illustrator of children's books. He has a stepdaughter, Tanya Kapka, who is a doctor in Oregon, and a son, Raman Ramakrishnan, who is a cellist based in New York who plays with the Daedalus Quartet
In the August 26, 2000 issue of Nature, Dr Ramakrishnan and his coworkers published the structure of the small ribosomal subunit of Thermus thermophilus, a heat-stable bacterium related to one found in the Yellowstone hot springs. With this 5.5 A
  ngstrom-resolution structure, Dr Ramakrishnan's group identified key portions of the RNA and, using previously determined structures, positioned seven of the subunit's proteins.
In 2009, shares the Nobel prize with Thomas E Steitz (US) and Ada E Yonath (Israel) for their "studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

Venki Ramakrishnan – Experience and Education
 
Education
•    1971 B.Sc. (Physics) Baroda University, India.
•    1976 Ph.D. (Physics) Ohio University.
•    1976-78 Graduate Student (Biology) University of California, San Diego.
Experience
•    1978-82 Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Chemistry, Yale University.
•    1982-83 Research Staff, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
•    1983-95 Scientific Staff, Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory.

1983-85: Assistant Biophysicist; 1985-88: Associate Biophysicist; 1988-90 Biophysicist; 1990-94 Biophysicist with tenure; 1994-95 Senior Biophysicist.
•    1991-92 Visiting scientist, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, England.
•    1995-99 Professor, Biochemistry Department, University of Utah and Faculty Member, Graduate Programs in Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology.
•    1999- Group Leader, Structural Studies Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, England.
•    2008-Title B Fellow (Senior Research Fellow), Trinity College, Cambridge
Honors
•    Foreign Member, Indian National Science Academy (elected 2008).
•    Fellow, Trinity College, Cambridge (elected 2008).
•    Heatley Medal, British Biochemical Society, 2008
•    Louis Jeantet Prize for Medicine, 2007
•    Datta Medal and Lecture, FEBS annual meeting, Vienna 2007
•    Member, National Academy of Sciences, USA (elected 2004).
•    Fellow of the Royal Society (elected 2003).
•    Member of EMBO (elected 2002).
•    Guggenheim Fellowship, 1991-92.

Special Lectures given in the last few years include:
•    Mendel Lecture, Brno, Czech Republic, 2009
•    Dintzis Lecture, Johns Hopkins University, 2009
•    Simpson Lecture, SUNY Stony Brook, 2008.
•    Marker Lectures, Pennsylvania State University, 2008
•    Kathleen Kendrick Memorial Lecture, Ohio State University, 2005.
•    BSA Distinguished Lecture, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2004.
•    Linné Lecture, Uppsala University, 2004.
•    Skirball Symposium on Molecular Machines, New York, 2003.
•    Max Perutz Memorial Lecture, British Crystallography Association, 2003.
•    EMBO Lecture, Symposium on Recognition, Heidelberg, 2003.
•    Weissbach Lecture, Rockefeller University, 2002.
•    G.N. Ramachandran Memorial Lecture, India, 2002.
•    EMBL Distinguished Visitor Lecture, 2002.
•    Dahlem Lecture, Max Planck Institute, Berlin, 2001.
•    Randall Lecture, Kings College, 2001.
•    Joseph Black Lecture, Glasgow University, 2001.
•    Dorcas Cummings Lecture, 60th Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on "The Ribosome", 2001.
•    Alkis Seraphim Lecture, Cambridge University, 2001.
•    Mill Hill Lecture, NIMR, 2001.
•    Zurich Chemical Society Lecture, 2001.
•    Stetten Lecture, NIH, 2000.
Other Professional Activities
•    Reviewer for most major scientific journals (currently on editorial board of Cell and PNAS).
•    Reviewer in the past for NIH and NSF grants or study sections.
•    Member of the Scientific Advisory Committee, EMBL (2002-2006).
•    Member of the Scientific Advisory Committee, IMP, Vienna (2008-).
•    Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, New Haven

Publications
Neubauer, C., Gao, Y. G., Andersen, K. R., Dunham, C. M., Kelley, A. C., Hentschel, J., Gerdes, K., Ramakrishnan, V., and Brodersen, D. E. (2009). The structural basis for mRNA recognition and cleavage by the ribosome-dependent endonuclease RelE. Cell 139, 1084-1095. .
Schmeing, T. M., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2009). What recent ribosome structures have revealed about the mechanism of translation. Nature 461, 1234-1242. .
Schmeing, T. M., Voorhees, R. M., Kelley, A. C., Gao, Y. G., Murphy, F. V. 4th., Weir, J. R., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2009). The crystal structure of the ribosome bound to EF-Tu and aminoacyl-tRNA. Science 326, 688-694. .
Gao, Y. G., Selmer, M., Dunham, C. M., Weixlbaumer, A., Kelley, A. C., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2009). The structure of the ribosome with elongation factor G trapped in the posttranslocational state. Science 326, 694-699. .
Schuette, J. C., Murphy, F. V. t., Kelley, A. C., Weir, J. R., Giesebrecht, J., Connell, S. R., Loerke, J., Mielke, T., Zhang, W., Penczek, P. A., Ramakrishnan, V., and Spahn, C. M. (2009). GTPase activation of elongation factor EF-Tu by the ribosome during decoding. Embo J 28, 755-765..
Voorhees, R. M., Weixlbaumer, A., Loakes, D., Kelley, A. C., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2009). Insights into substrate stabilization from snapshots of the peptidyl transferase center of the intact 70S ribosome. Nat Struct Mol Biol 16, 528-533. .
Weixlbaumer, A., Jin, H., Neubauer, C., Voorhees, R.M., Petry, S., Kelley, A.C., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2008). Insights into translational termination from the structure of RF2 bound to the ribosome. Science 322, 953-956. .
Ramakrishnan, V. (2008). What we have learned from ribosome structures. (The Heatley Medal Lecture). Biochem Soc Trans 36, 567-74. ..
 Weixlbaumer A, Petry S, Dunham CM, Selmer M, Kelley AC, Ramakrishnan V (2007). Crystal structure of the ribosome recycling factor bound to the ribosome. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 14, 733-737. ..
Weixlbaumer, A., Murphy, F. V. 4th., Dziergowska, A., Malkiewicz, A., Vendeix, F. A., Agris, P. F., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2007). Mechanism for expanding the decoding capacity of transfer RNAs by modification of uridines. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 14, 498-502.
Passmore, L. A., Schmeing, T. M., Maag, D., Applefield, D. J., Acker, M. G., Algire, M. A., Lorsch, J. R., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2007). The eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A induce an open conformation of the 40S ribosome. Mol Cell 26, 41-50. Dunham, C. M., Selmer, M., Phelps, S. S., Kelley, A. C., Suzuki, T., Joseph, S., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2007). Structures of tRNAs with an expanded anticodon loop in the decoding center of the 30S ribosomal subunit. RNA 13, 817-823.
Selmer, M., Dunham, C.M., Murphy, F.V IV, Weixlbaumer, A., Petry S., Kelley, A.C., Weir, J.R. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2006). Structure of the 70S ribosome complexed with mRNA and tRNA. Science , 313, 1935-1942.
Petry, S., Brodersen, D.E, Murphy, F.V. IV, Dunham, C.M., Selmer, M., Tarry, M.J., Kelley, A.C., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2005). Crystal structures of the ribosome in complex with release factors RF1 and RF2 bound to a cognate stop codon. Cell 123, 1255-1266.
Daviter, T., Murphy, F.V. 4th, Ramakrishnan, V (2005). A renewed focus on transfer RNA. Science, 308, 1123-4
Ogle, J.M. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2005).Structural insights into translational fidelity. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 74, 129-177
Murphy, F.V. IV and Ramakrishnan, V. (2004). Structure of a purine-purine wobble base pair in the decoding center of the ribosome. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 11, 1251-1252.
Murphy, F.V. IV, Ramakrishnan, V., Malkiewicz, A. and Agris, P.F.(2004). The role of modifications in codon discrimination by tRNALysUUU. Nat.Struct Mol. Biol. 11, 1186-1191
Ogle, J.M., Carter, A.P. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2003). Insights into the decoding mechanism from recent ribosome structures. Trends Bioch. Sci. 28, 259-266..
Valle, M., Gillet, R., Kaur, S., Henne, A., Ramakrishnan, V. and Frank, J. (2003). Visualizing tmRNA entry into a stalled ribosome. Science 300, 127-30..
Ogle, J.M., Murphy, F.V. IV, Tarry, M.J. and Ramakrishnan V. (2002). Selection of tRNA by the ribosome requires a transition from an open to a closed form. Cell 111, 721-32.
 Ramakrishnan, V. (2002) Ribosome structure and the mechanism of translation. Cell 108, 557-572
Brodersen, D. E., Clemons W. M. Jr., Carter, A. P., Wimberly, B. T., and Ramakrishnan, V. (2002). Crystal structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus. Proteins of the 30S subunit and their interactions with 16S RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 316, 723 - 766.
Brodersen, D.E., Carter, A.P., Clemons, W.M. Jr., Morgan-Warren, R. J., Murphy F.V. IV, Ogle, J. M., Tarry, M. J., Wimberly, B.T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2001). Atomic structures of the 30S subunit and its complexes with ligands and antibiotics. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 66, 17-32.
Clemons, W.M. Jr., Brodersen, D.E., McCutcheon, J.P., May, J.L.C., Carter, A.P., Morgan-Warren, R.J., Wimberly, B.T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2001). Crystal structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus. Purification, crystallization and structure determination. J. Mol. Biol. 310, 827-843
Ogle, J.M., Brodersen, D.E., Clemons, W.M. Jr., Tarry, M.J., Carter, A.P. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2001). Recognition of cognate tRNA by the 30S ribosomal subunit. Science, 292, 897-902..
Ramakrishnan, V. and Moore, P.B. (2001). Atomic structures at last: the ribosome in 2000. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 11, 144-154
Carter, A.P., Clemons, W.M. Jr., Brodersen, D.E., Morgan-Warren, R.J., Wimberly, B.T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2001). Crystal structure of an initiation factor bound to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Science 291, 498-501..
Brodersen, D.E., Clemons, W.M. Jr., Carter, A.P., Morgan-Warren, R.J., Wimberly, B.T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2000). The structural basis for the action of the antibiotics tetracycline, pactamycin, and hygromycin B on the 30S ribosomal subunit. Cell 103, 1143-1154.
Wimberly, B.T., Brodersen, D.E., Clemons, W.M. Jr., Carter, A.P., Morgan-Warren, R.J., Vonrhein, C., Hartsch, T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2000). Structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit. Nature 407, 327-339
Carter, A.P., Clemons, W.M. Jr., Brodersen, D.E., Morgan-Warren, R.J., Wimberly, B.T. and Ramakrishnan, V. (2000). Functional insights from the structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit and its interactions with antibiotics. Nature 407, 340-348. 
Allard, P., Rak, A. V., Wimberly, B. T., Clemons, W. M., Jr., Kalinin, A., Helgstrand, M., Garber, M. B., Ramakrishnan, V. & Härd, T. (2000). Another piece of the ribosome: Solution structure of S16 and its location in the 30S subunit. Structure Fold Des. 8, 875-882. .
Shu, F., Ramakrishnan, V. & Schoenborn, B. P. (2000). Enhanced visibility of hydrogen atoms by neutron crystallography on fully deuterated myoglobin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97, 3872-3877. .
Ramakrishnan, V., Capel, M.S., Clemons, W.M. Jr., May, J.L.C., and Wimberly, B.T. (2000). Progress towards the crystal structure of a bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit. In The Ribosome. Structure, Function, Antibiotics and Cellular Interactions (Garrett, R.A., Douthwaite, S.R., Liljas, A., Matheson, A.T., Moore, P.B. and Noller H.F., eds), ASM Press, Washington D.C.
White, S.W., Clemons, W.M., Davies, C., Ramakrishnan, V. and Wimberly, B.T. (2000). Structure of bacterial ribosomal proteins: High resolution probes of the architecture and mechanism of the ribosome. In The Ribosome. Structure, Function, Antibiotics and Cellular Interactions (Garrett, R.A., Douthwaite, S.R., Liljas, A., Matheson, A.T., Moore, P.B. and Noller H.F., eds), ASM Press, Washington D.C.
Clemons, W.M. Jr., May, J.L.C., Wimberly, B.T., McCutcheon, J.M., Capel, M.S. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1999). Structure of a bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit at 5.5 A resolution. Nature 400, 833-840.
Wimberly, B.T., Guymon, R., McCutcheon, J.P., White, S.W. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1999). A detailed view of a ribosomal active site: the structure of the L11-RNA complex. Cell 97, 491-502. .
McCutcheon J.P., Agrawal,  R.K., Philips, S.M., Grassucci, R.A., Gerchman S,E., Clemons, W.M. Jr, Ramakrishnan, V. and Frank, J. (1999). Location of translational initiation factor IF3 on the small ribosomal subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96, 4301-4306. .
Clemons, W.M. Jr., Gowda, K., Black, S.D., Zwieb, C. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1999). Crystal structure of the conserved subdomain of human protein SRP54M at 2.1 Å resolution: evidence for the mechanism of signal peptide binding. J. Mol. Biol. 292, 697-705.
Angus-Hill, M.L., Dutnall, R.N., Tafrov, S.T., Sternglanz, R. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1999). Crystal structure of the histone acetyltransferase Hpa2: A tetrameric member of the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. J. Mol. Biol. 294, 1311-1325. .
Dutnall R.N., Tafrov S.T., Sternglanz, R., Ramakrishnan, V. (1999). Structure of the yeast histone acetyltransferase Hat1: insights into substrate specificity and implications for the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 63, 501-507.
Dutnall, R.N., Tafrov, S.T., Sternglanz, R. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1998). Structure of the histone acetyltransferase Hat1: a paradigm for the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. Cell 94, 427-438.
Zhou, Y.-B., Gerchman, S.E., Ramakrishnan, V., Travers, A. and Muyldermans, S.V. (1998). Position and orientation of the globular domain of linker histone H5 on the nucleosome. Nature 395, 402-405...
Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1998). Ribosomal protein structures: insights into the architecture, machinery and evolution of the ribosome. Trends Biochem Sci. 23, 208-212.
Clemons, W.M. Jr., Davies, C., White, S.W. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1998). Conformational variability of the N-terminal helix in the structure of ribosomal protein S15. Structure 6, 429-438.
Davies C., Bussiere D.E., Golden B.L., Porter S.J., Ramakrishnan V., White S.W. (1998). Ribosomal proteins S5 and L6: high-resolution crystal structures and roles in protein synthesis and antibiotic resistance. J. Mol. Biol. 279, 873-888. .,
Davies C., Gerstner R.B., Draper D.E., Ramakrishnan V, White S.W. (1998). The crystal structure of ribosomal protein S4 reveals a two-domain molecule with an extensive RNA-binding surface: one domain shows structural homology to the ETS DNA-binding motif. EMBO J. 17, 4545-4558. .
Ramakrishnan, V. (1997). Histone H1 and chromatin higher-order structure. Crit.Rev. Eukaryotic Gene Expr. 7, 215-230. ..
Dutnall, R.N. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1997). Twists and turns of the nucleosome: tails without ends. Structure 5, 1255-1259. ..
Wimberly, B.T., White, S.W. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1997). The structure of ribosomal protein S7 at 1.9 Å resolution reveals a -hairpin motif that binds double-stranded nucleic acids. Structure 5, 1197-1198..
Ramakrishnan, V. (1997). Histone structure and the organization of the nucleosome. Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 26, 83-112. ..
Ramakrishnan, V. and Biou, V. (1996). Treatment of MAD data as a special case of MIR. Meth. Enzymol. 276, 538-557. ..
Hoffman DW, Cameron CS, Davies C, White SW, Ramakrishnan V (1996). Ribosomal protein L9: a structure determination by the combined use of X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. J Mol. Biol. 264, 1058-1071. ..
Davies, C., Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1996). Structural evidence for specific S8-RNA and S8-protein interactions within the 30S ribosomal subunit: ribosomal protein S8 from Bacillus stearothermophilus at 1.9 A resolution. Structure 4, 1093-1104..
Goytisolo, F.A., Gerchman, S.E., Yu, X., Rees, C., Graziano, V., Ramakrishnan, V. and Thomas, J.O. (1996). Identification of two DNA-binding sites on the globular domain of histone H5. EMBO J. 15, 3421-3429. ..
Jayshree, T.N., Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1996). Solution structure of prokaryotic ribosomal protein S17 by high resolution NMR spectroscopy. Biochemistry35, 2845-2853. ..
Davies, C., White, S.W. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1996). The crystal structure of ribosomal protein L14 reveals an important organizational component of the translational apparatus. Structure 4, 55-66. ..
Hamiche, A., Schultz, P., Ramakrishnan, V., Oudet, P. and Prunell, A. (1996). Linker Histone-dependent DNA Structure in Linear Mononucleosomes. J. Mol. Biol. 257, 30-42. ..
Graziano, V., Gerchman, S.E., Schneider, D.K. & Ramakrishnan, V. (1996). Neutron scattering studies on chromatin higher-order structure. Basic Life Sci. 64 127-136. 16377566 ..
Ramakrishnan, V. (1995). The histone fold: evolutionary questions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 92, 11328-11330. ..
Biou, V., Shu, F. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1995). X-ray crystallography shows that translational initiation factor IF3 consists of two compact / domains linked by an -helix. EMBO J 14, 4056-4064. ..
Ramakrishnan, V., Davies, C., Gerchman, S.E., Golden, B.L., Hoffmann, D.W., Jaishree, T.N., Kycia, J.H., Porter, S. and White, S.W. (1995). Structures of Prokaryotic Ribosomal Proteins: Implications for RNA-Binding and Evolution. Biochem. Cell Biol. 73,979-986 (invited symposium paper). ..
Kycia, J.H., Biou, V., Shu, F., Gerchman, S.E., Graziano, V. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1995). Prokaryotic translation initiation factor IF3 is an elongated protein consisting of two crystallizable domains. Biochemistry 34, 6183-6187. ..
Davies, C., Gerchman, S.E., Kycia, J.H., McGee, K., Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1994). Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of bacterial ribosomal protein L14. Acta Cryst. D50, 790-792.
Ramakrishnan, V. (1994). Histone structure. Curr. Opin. Struc. Biol.4, 44-50.
Graziano, V., Gerchman, S.E., Schneider, D. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1994). Histone H1 is located in the interior of the 30 nm filament. Nature368, 351-354. ..
Gerchman, S.E., Graziano, V. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1994). Expression of chicken linker histones in E. coli: Sources of problems and methods to overcome some of the difficulties. Protein Expression and Purification5, 242-251. ..
Cerf, C., Lippens, G., Ramakrishnan, V., Muyldermans, S., Segers, A., Wyns, L., Wodak, S.J. and Hallenga, K. (1994). Homo- and heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR studies of the globular domain of histone H1: full assignment, tertiary structure, and comparison with the globular domain of histone H5. Biochemistry 33, 11079-11086. ..
Hoffmann, D.W., Davies, C., Gerchman, S.E., Kycia, J.H., Porter, S.J., White, S.W. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1994). Prokaryotic ribosomal protein L9: A bi-lobed RNA binding protein. EMBO J. 13, 205-212. ..
Golden, B.L., Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1993). Ribosomal protein L6: Structural evidence of gene duplication from a primitive RNA-binding protein. EMBO J. 12, 4901-4908. ..
Golden, B.L., Hoffmann, D.W., Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1993). Ribosomal protein S17: Characterization of the three-dimensional structure by 1H and 15N-NMR. Biochemistry 32, 12812-12820. ..
Cerf, C., Lippens, G., Muyldermans, S., Segers, A., Ramakrishnan, V., Wodak, S.J., Hallenga, K. and Wyns, L. (1993). Homo- and heteronuclear 2D NMR studies of the globular domain of H1: Sequential assignment and secondary structure. Biochemistry 32, 11345-11351. ..
Ramakrishnan, V., Finch, J.T., Graziano, V., Lee, P.L. and Sweet, R.M. (1993). The crystal structure of the globular domain of histone H5 and its implications for nucleosome binding. Nature 362, 219-223. ..
Ramakrishnan, V., Gerchman, S.E., Golden, B.L., Hoffmann, D.W., Kycia, J.H., Porter, S.J. and White, S.W. (1993). Structural studies on prokaryotic ribosomal proteins. In The Translational Apparatus (eds. K. Nierhaus, F. Franceschi, A.R. Subramanian, V.A. Erdmann, and B. Wittmann-Liebold), pp 533-544, Plenum Press, New York.
Ramakrishnan, V. and White, S.W. (1992). The structure of ribosomal protein S5 reveals sites of interaction with 16S rRNA. Nature 358, 768-771. ..
Mangel, W.F., Lin, B. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1991). Conformation of one- and two-chain high molecular weight urokinase by small-angle neutron scattering and vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 9408-9412. ..
Ramakrishnan, V., Patthy, L. and Mangel, W.F. (1991). Conformation of lys-plasminogen and kringle 1-3 fragment of plasminogen analyzed by small-angle neutron scattering. Biochemistry 30, 3963-3969. ..
Ramakrishnan, V. and Gerchman, S.E.(1990). Cloning, sequencing and overexpression of genes for ribosomal proteins from B. stearothermophilus. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 880-885. ..
Graziano, V., Gerchman, S.E., Wonacott, A.J., Sweet, R.M., Wells, J.R.E., White, S.W. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1990). Crystallization of the globular domain of histone H5. J. Mol. Biol. 212, 253-257. ..
Graziano, V. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1990). Interaction of HMG14 with chromatin. J. Mol. Biol. 214, 897-910. ..
Mangel, W.F., Lin, B.H. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1990). Characterization of an extremely large, ligand-induced conformational change in plasminogen. Science 248, 69-73. ..
Ramakrishnan, V. (1990). Fundamentals of Neutron Scattering. In Protein Structure and Engineering (Jardetsky, O. and Niccolini, C. eds.), pp 49-60, Plenum Press, New York. (Invited talk at a NATO summer school in Erice, Italy, July 1989).
Graziano, V., Gerchman, S.E. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1988). Reconstitution of chromatin higher-order structure from histone H5 and depleted chromatin. J.Mol. Biol. 203, 997-1007. ..
Capel, M.S. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1988). Neutron scattering topography of the proteins of the small ribosomal subunit. Methods in Enzymology, 164, 117-130. ..
Wignall, G.D., Christen, D.K., and Ramakrishnan, V. (1988). Instrumental resolution effects in small-angle neutron scattering. J. Appl. Cryst.21, 438-451.
Fisher, L.W., Melpolder, S.M., O'Reilly, J.M., Ramakrishnan, V. and Wignall, G.D. (1988). Neutron scattering from interfacially polymerized core-shell latexes. J. Colloid Sci. 123, 24-34.
Gerchman, S.E. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1987). Chromatin higher-order structure studied by neutron scattering and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 84, 7802-7807. ..
Capel, M.S., Engelman, D.M., Freeborn, B.R., Kjeldgaard, M., Langer, J.A., Ramakrishnan, V., Schindler, D.G., Schneider, D.K., Schoenborn, B.P., Sillers, I.-Y., Yabuki, S. and Moore, P.B. (1987). A complete mapping of the proteins in the small ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli. Science238, 1403-1406. ..
Ramakrishnan, V. (1986). Distribution of protein and RNA in the 30S ribosomal subunit. Science 231, 1562-1564. ..
Ramakrishnan, V., Graziano, V. and Capel, M. (1986). A role for proteins S3 and S14 in the 30S ribosomal subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 261, 15049-15052. ..
Ramakrishnan, V. (1986). Scattering studies on ribosomes in solution. Physica 136B,232-235.
Schoenborn, B.P., Ramakrishnan, V. and Schneider, D. (1986). Hydrogen-deuterium exchange in structural biology. Physica 137B, 214-222.
Ramakrishnan, V. (1985). A treatment of instrumental smearing effects in circularly symmetric small angle scattering. J. Appl. Cryst.18, 42-46.
Kagawa, Y., Yoshida, M., Kihara, H. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1985). Active site in proton translocating ATPase. In Progress in Biiorganic Chemistry and Molecular Biology, (Ovchinnikov, Y., ed.), pp 175-181, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.
Wobbe, C.R., Mitra, S. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1984). The capsid structure of Kilham Rat Virus by small angle neutron scattering. Biochemistry23, 6565-6569. ..
Donnelly, M.I., Hartman, F.C. and Ramakrishnan, V. (1984) The shape of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in solution as inferred from small angle neutron scattering. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 406-411. ..
Donnelly, M.I., Ramakrishnan, V., and Hartman, F.C. (1984). Chemical and physical characterization of the activation of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. In Advances in Photosynthesis Research, (Sybesma, C., ed.) Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands.
Moore, P.B., Engelman, D.M., Langer, J.A., Ramakrishnan, V., Schindler, D.G., Schoenborn, B.P., Sillers, I-Y. and Yabuki, S. (1984). Neutron Scattering and the 30S ribosomal subunit of E. coli. In Neutrons in Biology (B.P. Schoenborn, ed.), pp 73-92, Plenum Press, New York.
Ramakrishnan, V., Capel, M., Kjeldgaard, M., Engelman, D.M. and Moore, P.B. (1984). The positions of proteins S14, S18 and S20 in the 30S ribosomal subunit of E. coli. J. Mol. Biol. 174, 265-284. ..
Uberbacher, E.C., Ramakrishnan, V., Olins, D.E., and Bunick G.J. (1983) Neutron scattering studies of nucleosome structure at low ionic strength. Biochemistry22,4916-4923. ..
Ramakrishnan, V., Darszon, A. and Montal, M. (1982). A small angle X-ray scattering study of a rhodopsin-lipid complex in hexane. J. Biol. Chem.258, 4857-4860. ..
Ramakrishnan, V., Yabuki, S., Sillers, I.-Y., Schindler, D.G., Engelman, D.M., and Moore, P.B. (1981). Positions of proteins S6, S11 and S15 in the 30S ribosome of E. coli. J. Mol. Biol. 153, 739-760. ..
Ramakrishnan, V. and Moore, P.B. (1981). The analysis of neutron distance data. J. Mol. Biol. 153, 719-738. ..
Ramakrishnan, V., Darszon, A., Philipp, M. and Montal, M. (1980). Rhodopsin in model membranes: The kinetics of channel opening and closing in rhodopsin containing planar lipid bilayers. Ann. N.Y. Academy of Sciences 358, 36-43. ..
Ramakrishnan, V. and Tanaka, T. (1977) Green's function theory of the ferroelectric phase transition in potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Phys. Rev. B 16, 422-427.
 
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