meta content='nobel,nobel prize,a nobel prize winner,nobelprize ,nobel prize winners ,nobel prize 2010,nobel prize winners 2010,alfrid nobel ' name='keywords'/> Nobel Prize: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

NNobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
Nobel Prize winners 2011
"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity".
The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was divided, one half jointly to Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity" and the other half to Ralph M. Steinman 

Bruce A. Beutler

The american  immunologist and geneticist  Bruce Alan Beutler was born 29 December 1957 in Chicago, Illinois

Bruce A. Beutler   Education 
M.D., Medicine, The University of Chicago, 1981
B.A., University of California, San Diego, 1976
Bruce A. Beutler  Awards & Professional Activities
2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 
2009 Albany Medical Center Prize 2007 Frederik B. Bang Award (International Endotoxin and Innate Immunity Society) 2007 Doctor of Medicine honoris causa from the Technical University of Munich 2007Balzan Prize (International Balzan Foundation, Italy and Switzerland) 2006Gran Prix Charles-Leopold-Mayer (Académie des Sciences, France) 2006William B. Coley Award (Cancer Research Institute, USA) 2004 Robert Koch Prize (Robert Koch Stiftung, Germany) 1994 Outstanding Investigator Award (American Federation for Clinical Research, USA)

Jules Hoffman was born in Luxembourg, where he received his primary and secondary education until he moved to Strasbourg University to study Zoology, General Biology and Chemistry. Jules HOFFMANN received his Ph.D. at this University, working on the origins and roles of blood cells in the grasshopper Locusta migratoria under the supervision of Prs. P. Joly and A. Porte. After a postdoctoral year at Marburg University where he worked with Prs. P. Karlson and J. Koolman, J. Hoffmann returned to Strasbourg to take up biochemical studies on insect hormones, particularly on the steroid hormone ecdysone. In 1978, upon retirement of Pr. Joly Jules HOFFMANN became director of the laboratory and the interests of the group gradually moved to insect immunity. In 1994, J. Hoffmann was appointed director of the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology of the French National Research Agency CNRS. This institute, to which J. Hoffmann and his group moved from their previous location, the Institute of Zoology and General Biology, is located on the central campus of the University of Strasbourg (Universite Louis Pasteur). Since that period, the studies of Jules HOFFMANN and his numerous co-workers, focused primarily on the molecular and cellular aspects of the innate immune response of Drosophila, with a recent extension to the malaria vector insect Anopheles. J. Hoffmann has served on numerous French and International Committees, and is a Member of several Academies. He was elected in 2007 President of the French Academy of Sciences, and now works part-time in Paris. He is also a member of the Board of Administration of the French Research Agency CNRS.

Ralph M. Steinman 
Ralph Marvin Steinman the Canadian immunologist and cell biologist 
was born in January 14, 1943 

Ralph M. Steinman  received a Bachelor of Science degree from McGill University and received his MD in 1968 from Harvard Medical School. He completed his internship and residency at Massachusetts General Hospital

2011 – Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Shared with Bruce Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann) 
2009 – Albany Medical Center Prize (Shared with Charles A. Dinarello and Bruce Beutler)[1]
1998 – William B. Coley Award