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Nobel Prize

Nobel Prize

In 1888 Alfred's brother Ludvig died while visiting Cannes and a French newspaper erroneously published Alfred's obituary. It condemned him for his invention of dynamite and is said to have brought about his decision to leave a better legacy after his death. The obituary stated Le marchand de la mort est mort ("The merchant of death is dead") and went on to say, "Dr. Alfred Nobel, who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday." Alfred was disappointed with what he read and concerned with how he would be remembered. On 27 November 1895, at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Nobel signed his last will and testament and set aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prizes, to be awarded annually without distinction of nationality. He died of a stroke on 10 December 1896 at Sanremo, Italy. After taxes and bequests to individuals, Nobel's will gave 31,225,000 Swedish kronor (equivalent to about 1.8 billion kronor or 250 million US dollars in 2008) to fund the prizes.

The first three of these prizes are awarded for eminence in physical science, in chemistry and in medical science or physiology; the fourth is for literary work "in an ideal direction" and the fifth prize is to be given to the person or society that renders the greatest service to the cause of international fraternity, in the suppression or reduction of standing armies, or in the establishment or furtherance of peace congresses. There is no prize awarded for mathematics,[6] but see Abel Prize.
The Formulation about the literary prize, "in an ideal direction" (i idealisk riktning in Swedish), is cryptic and has caused much confusion. For many years, the Swedish Academy interpreted "ideal" as "idealistic" (idealistisk) and used it as a reason not to give the prize to important but less Romantic authors, such as Henrik Ibsen and Leo Tolstoy. This interpretation has since been revised, and the prize has been awarded to, for example, Dario Fo and José Saramago, who definitely do not belong to the camp of literary idealism.[original research?]
There was also quite a lot of room for interpretation by the bodies he had named for deciding on the physical sciences and chemistry prizes, given that he had not consulted them before making the will. In his one-page testament, he stipulated that the money go to discoveries or inventions in the physical sciences and to discoveries or improvements in chemistry. He had opened the door to technological awards, but had not left instructions on how to deal with the distinction between science and technology. Since the deciding bodies he had chosen were more concerned with the former, it is not surprising that the prizes went to scientists and not to engineers, technicians or other inventors.
In 2001, Alfred Nobel's great-grandnephew, Peter Nobel (b. 1931), asked the Bank of Sweden to differentiate its award to economists given "in Alfred Nobel's memory" from the five other awards. This has caused much controversy whether the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel is actually a "Nobel Prize" / "Peace Prize

Who refused the Nobel Prize ?!
1- The French writer Jean-Paul Sartre refused the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1964
Born in Paris in 1905, philosopher, existentialist, writer and dramaturge, author of "Being and Nothingness", "Huis Clos", "Les Mouches", "Les Mains Sales","La Nausee" "Critique of Dialectic Reason","Les Mots" for which he received, in 1960 the nobel prize that he declined, director of the forbidden "Cause du peuple" and "Liberation" until 1974.

Sartre was a professor of philosophy when he joined the French Army at the outbreak of World War II. Captured by the Germans, he was released, after nearly a year, in 1941. He immediately joined the French resistance as a journalist. He joined the Communist Party (PC) because of the need to take active part in the fight for the proletarian.
His existentialist philosophy, proposes no god, no ethic, no moral, and was meant to be a cleaning of the old secular values, where god is replaced by some ethical statements; and completely denied the existence of some kind of rules or clues to behave. The solution, was the subject being conscious of his position towards the world, and the good faith, whose former question was "what would happen if all acted this way" The decision of the subject in good faith, and freedom, was the real act of man.
In the postwar era, Jean-Paul Sartre, became one of the most influential men of this century. He died in Paris in 1980.

He explained that his personal belief was that writers should not accept awards which could prejudice their artistic freedom

2- , Le Duc Tho also refused the Peace Prize in 1973
Le Duc Tho
was born in Nam Ha province, Vietnam on 14th October, 1911. As a young man he became involved in radical politics and in 1930 helped establish the Indochinese Communist Party. He campaigned against French rule in Vietnam and was twice imprisoned for his political activities (1930-36 and 1939-44).
In 1945 Le Duc Tho returned to Hanoi and joined with Ho Chi Minh and Vo Nguyen Giap in establishing the Vietnam Revolutionary League (Vietminh). Until 1954 he was Vietminh's leader in South Vietnam. A member of the Politburo of the Vietnam Workers' Party, he had responsibility for organizing the rebellion against the government of South Vietnam.
Peace talks between representatives from United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the NLF began in Paris in January, 1969. Le Duc Tho served as special adviser to the North Vietnamese delegation. He eventually became North Vietnamese leader in these talks.
In October, 1972, the negotiators came close to agreeing to a formula to end the war. The plan was that US troops would withdraw from Vietnam in exchange for a cease-fire and the return of 566 American prisoners held in Hanoi. It was also agreed that the governments in North and South Vietnam would remain in power until new elections could be arranged to unite the whole country.
The main problem with this formula was that whereas the US troops would leave the country, the North Vietnamese troops could remain in their positions in the south. In an effort to put pressure on North Vietnam to withdraw its troops. President Richard Nixon ordered a new series of air-raids on Hanoi and Haiphong. It was the most intense bombing attack in world history. In eleven days, 100,000 bombs were dropped on the two cities. The destructive power was equivalent to five times that of the atom bomb used on Hiroshima. This bombing campaign was condemned throughout the world. Newspaper headlines included: "Genocide", "Stone-Age Barbarism" and "Savage and Senseless".
The North Vietnamese refused to change the terms of the agreement and so in January, 1973, Nixon agreed to sign the peace plan that had been proposed in October. However, the bombing had proved to be popular with many of the American public as they had the impression that North Vietnam had been "bombed into submission."
As a result of their role in these peace talks, Le Duc Tho and Henry Kissinger were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. However, Le Duc Tho, refused to accept the prize on the grounds that his country was not yet at peace.
Le Duc Tho died in Hanoi on 13th October, 1990.

3-Gerhard Domagk

 He was forced by the Nazi regime to refuse the prize and was arrested by the Gestapo for a week After the end of World War II, Domagk accepted his medal
Gerhard Domagk was born in 1895 in Lagow, Brandenburg, as the son of a teacher. At the age of 20, Domagk was confronted with the supposed limits of medicine through his experiences in World War I. At that time, operations that were initially successful were often marred by fatal infectious diseases such as gangrene or gas gangrene. The antiseptic properties of the then-common substances chlorine water and carbolic acid did not last long enough to effectively combat these diseases.

In 1914 Domagk received his diploma from secondary school in Liegnitz and began a course of study in human medicine at the University of Kiel in the same year. After having to interrupt his studies for a time due to the war, he received his doctorate in 1921. His post-doctoral qualification was obtained in 1924 at the Pathological Institute of the University of Greifswald. Gerhard Domagk discovered the first synthetic drug that could be used to battle the effects of many bacterial diseases. He was born in Lagow, Brandenburg(which is now Poland, but was then Germany) on October 30, 1895. Domagk beganhis studies at the University of Kiel but abruptly stopped at the outbreak of World War I during which he served in the military and was wounded in action. He returned to school to study medicine and was awarded a medical degree in 1921.
After his schooling, Domagk began working for I.G. Farbenindustrie, a large company that manufactured industrial dyes. Because of his medical training, hedid research on dyes with an eye toward their medical applications. One newly manufactured dye, called Prontosil Red, was of particular interest to Domagk. In 1932, Domagk found that when he injected dye into mice infected with Streptococcus bacteria, it cured the animals of the usually fatal effects and seemed to have few side effects. More dramatically, when his daughter Hildegarde contracted a serious Streptococcus infection after prickingherself with a knitting needle infected with a virulent bacteria in the laboratory, Domagk, in desperation, administered large doses of Prontosil to her,judging the dosage based only on his experiments with mice. In 1935, the story of her recovery spread like wildfire all over the world. Prontosil was later used by Franklin D. Roosevelt's son who was dying of an infection.
4- Adolf Friedrich

Born in 24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist and member of the Nazi party He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939 for his "work on sex hormones." He initially rejected the award in accordance with government policy, but accepted it in 1949 after World War II.
orn in Lehe, near Bremerhaven, he started his studies at the University of Marburg.
For his Ph.D he joined the working group of the Nobel laureate Adolf Windaus at the University of Göttingen and he finished his studies with a Ph.D. in chemistry in 1927.
Adolf Windaus and Walter Schöller of Schering gave him the advice to work on hormones extraced from ovaries. This research lead to the discovery of estrone and other primary female sex hormones, which were extracted from several thousand liters of urine. For this research he won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1939 together with Leopold Ružička who was involved in the synthesis of several newly discovered steroids.
After his Habilitation he became lecturer in Göttingen 1931. He was professor at the Technical University of Danzig 1933 and after a visit in the US, he became director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry (later the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry) in Berlin-Dahlem beginning in 1936. Butenandt joined the Nazi Party on May 1, 1936 (party member No. 3716562). As the head of a leading institute, he applied for government funding on concentrated research labeled kriegswichtig (important for the war), some of which focused on military projects like the improvement of oxygen uptake for high-altitude bomber pilots. His involvement with the Nazi regime and various themes of research led to criticism after the war and even after his death, the exact nature of his political orientation during the Nazi era has never been fully resolved. When the institute moved to Tübingen in 1945 he became a professor at the University of Tübingen. In 1956, when the institute relocated to Martinsried, a suburb of Munich, Butenandt became a professor at the University of Munich. He also served as president of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science following Otto Hahn from 1960 to 1972.
Butenandt is credited with the discovery and naming of the silkworm moth pheromone Bombykol in 1959.
Butenandt died in Munich in 1995. He was 91.

5- . Boris Pasternak was obliged to decline by his government

Boris Pasternak was born in Moscow to a cultured Jewish family. His father Leonid was a professor at the Moscow School of Painting and an illustrator of Tolstoy's works. His mother, Rosa Kaufman, was an acclaimed concert pianist. His parents received frequent visits from prominent Moscow writers, artists, and intellectuals, including composers Sergei Rachmaninoff and Alexander Scriabin, poet and playwright Alexander Blok, writer Andrei Bely, and poet Rainer Maria Rilke, whose writing would greatly influence Pasternak.
He wrote two books in 1917, My Sister Life and Themes and Variations. The Bolshevik Revolution and World War I would delay their appearance for five years, during which he translated plays by Heinrich von Kleist and Ben Johnson and poems by the German expressionists. When it was finally published in 1922, My Sister Life secured his place among the leading writers of the time. Its lush imagery and idiomatic language contrasted with its disciplined quatrain form. That same year Pasternak married Art Institute student Evgeniya Lurye and brought her to Berlin to stay with his family, who would relocate there permanently. This was the last time Pasternak would ever see them, as his repeated applications for permission to visit were denied. In 1923, the couple began their own family with a son, Evgenii. Pasternak finally published Themes and Variations that same year.
In October 1958, Pasternak was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. This was taken as a recognition of the value and importance of Doctor Zhivago, and it immediately started an official witch-hunt against him in the Soviet Union. While he was not sent into exile or arrested, all publication of his translations came to a halt and he was deprived of his livelihood. He was poor and uncertain of being able to support his dependents. Yet the strain did not disturb the rhythm of his work. He wrote his last complete book, When the Weather Clears, and in the summer of 1959 he began The Blind Beauty, a play about an enslaved artist during the period of serfdom in Russia.

. Boris Pasternak died on the evening of May 30th. While the authorities did their best to play down his death, many thousands of people travelled out from Moscow to his funeral in the small village where he lived.
In 1988, the Union of Soviet Writers posthumously reinstated Pasternak, making the publication of Doctor Zhivago in the Soviet Union finally possible. Pasternak's son, Evgenii, accepted the Nobel Prize medal on his father's behalf at a ceremony in Stockholm in 1989.